Endometrial hyperplasia is the excessive thickening of the lining of the uterus. The most common conditions of endometrial hyperplasia, which has the risk of transforming into cancer unless treated, are premenopausal period, late menstrual period, obesity, diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, long-term use of estrogen-containing drugs.
The uterine wall is affected from female hormones called estrogen and progesterone. The natural menstrual cycle is 28 days, varying between 21 and 35 days. In the first 14 days, the lining of the uterus thickens due to estrogen secretion. During the remaining 14 days, the development of the uterine wall is balanced with the secretion of the hormone progesterone. If this balance is disturbed by excessive estrogen hormone secretion, abnormal thickening of the lining of the uterus, which is endometrial hyperplasia, is observed. In some cases, the cells take on a different structure than they should and this causes atypical endometrial hyperplasia, which can increase the risk of uterine cancer.
Ultrasonography, biopsy (with hysteroscopy or abortion) methods are used in the diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia. The treatment method to be applied after diagnosis varies depending on the extent of the disease and from person to person. While methods such as a progesterone-supporting drug therapy or the use of progesterone-containing hormone spirals can be applied, surgical interventions such as biopsy and hysterectomy can also be resorted to if the symptoms persist.
- Alev A.
- Duygu D.